Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Stroop efect Essay Example

Stroop efect Essay Example Stroop efect Essay Stroop efect Essay Phonemic awareness The ability to hear and manipulate sounds in words Alphabetic principle (phonics) The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words Fluency with text The effortless, automatic ability to read words in text Understanding spoken language Vocabulary The ability to understand (receptive) and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey meaning Comprehension The complex cognitive process involved in the intentional use of text (or spoken language) to convey meaning Lexical/direct word recognition With/without semantics Read familiar words irregular words Phonological/indirect Read regular words nonsense words E. G. Eve, hoppled Models of skilled word recognition: Connectionist models Computational (mathematical) models of word-reading Implemented as computer simulations via neural networks All words are read by a single route that is sensitive to the statistical regularities between orthography (text) phonology (speech) Dual-route explanation of word frequency regularity effects The speed with which words can be named (from fastest to slowest) High frequency rods (like time) Are recognized quickly through the direct route (by sight) Low frequency regular words (like mint) Can be sounded out through the indirect route Low frequency irregular words (like pint) Cant be correctly sounded out using the indirect route Must be identified through the direct route, which is slower for less familiar words Onwards (like pint) Can only be pronounced through the indirect route Named most slowly both direct indirect routes must be explained Phases in learning to read Pre-alphabetic Partial alphabetic Full alphabetic Consolidated alphabetic (orthographic) Not strict stages of reading development Beginning readers may used a variety of strategies depending on the circumstances Can connect visual cues to word meanings Can read environmental print But cant read Coca cola, Stop etc. Would only see words within logos e. G. Partial alphabetic reading Uses cues based on letter-sound relationships Rehire Wile (1985) found: Children at this stage find it easier to learn phonologically plausible words: elephant easier than WAC IRK for giraffe, easier than WEB Full alphabetic reading LET for Readers use spelling-sound knowledge to sound out unfamiliar words b-a-t and d-o-g When readers use letter-sound rules to decode unfamiliar words They develop detailed representations of word sin lexicon Consolidated alphabetic Can use larger letter-sound patterns Chi-est. Vs.. Chi-e-s-t Can recognize morphological (meaning-based) units Help helpful unhelpful; beauty beautiful And common orthographical patterns -sigh, -sigh, -AAU, -ins, -deed, -Zion Shares (1995) Self-Teaching Hypothesis Sounding out words underpins fluent word recognition Provides a self-teaching mechanism for deciphering unfamiliar words Word recognition becomes consolidated after several repetitions (4 14 average; many more for poor reads) Item-based, rather than stage-based development Phonological deficit Double deficit Rapid automated naming (+ Phonological deficit) But letter naming is a useful predictor of early reading success Visual deficits/visual stress Cerebella deficit theory Difficulty in developing automatic Mango-cellular dysfunction Subtle auditory visual deficits Prerequisites of alphabetic literacy The ability to sound out unfamiliar words provides foundation for reading development Poor Onwards reading skills are sin qua non of reading disability In order to use spelling-to-sound information to sound out new words, beginning readers need: Spoken words can be thought of as sequences of sounds The same sounds occur in different words Letter knowledge Individual sounds (phonemes) can be represented by alphabetic letters Pre-requisit e skills Phonological awareness What is it? The ability to recognize manipulate sounds in spoken words The single most rueful advance in the science and pedagogy of reading (last) century How is it measured? Syllable phoneme counting/tapping How many sounds are in there in elephant? Rhyme production Tell me a word that rhymes with drink Phoneme deletion Say bed without the lb/ Which word starts with a different sound? Phonological awareness follows a developmental pattern Syllables pop-TA-to (kindergarten) Sub-syllabic units (pre-readers) Onset (initial consonants) Slip, slop, slap Rime (vowel later consonants) Bat cat Phonemic units (learning to read) Individual phonemes in words b-a-t

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